Home  > NEWS  > Industry Knowledge  >  Solar street light components and features

Solar street light components and features


With the increasing scarcity of the earth's resources, the investment cost of traditional energy is rising, and various safety issues and pollution hazards are everywhere. In contrast to this, solar energy, as an inexhaustible and environmental source of energy, has gained more and more attention because of its huge potential. At the same time, with the development and progress of solar photovoltaic technology, solar power generation has developed by leaps and bounds in the field of street lighting.

What is solar street light
Solar street light is composed of solar panels, batteries, controllers, light sources, and light poles. The solar street lamp is powered by crystalline silicon solar cell. The battery stores electrical energy which is converted from sunlight. The super bright LED is used as a light source, and is controlled by an intelligent charging and discharging controller to replace the street lamp of the traditional public electric lighting. The working principle of solar street lights seems pretty easy. At daytime, The solar panel absorbs the solar spectrum to generate electricity, and the controller controls the conversion to store the electricity generated by the solar panel into the battery. At night, the electric energy inside the battery is converted by the controller to drive the LED light source to emit light.
Road Smart-Solar Street Lighting System-solar Street Light Components And Features
Solar panel
Solar panels - also known as "solar chips" , "photovoltaic cells" or "solar cells" - are optoelectronic semiconductor wafers that use solar light to generate electricity directly. They directly converts light energy into electrical energy through photoelectric effect or photochemical effect. Solar cell can be calssified into 4 types: monocrystalline silicon solar cell, polycrystalline silicon solar cell, amorphous silicon solar cell, thin film solar cell.The various types of solar cells are also very different. Polycrystalline silicon and monocrystalline silicon solar cells are the mainstream. Their working principle are very interesting. The sun shines on the semiconductor PN junction, forming a new hole-electron pair. Under the action of the PN junction electric field, holes flow from the N region to the P region, and electrons flow from the P region to the N region, and the circuit is turned on to form a current.
Road Smart-Solar Street Lighting System-solar Street Light Components And Features-1
A battery is a device which is able to store electrical energy in the form of chemical energy, and convert chemical energy into electricity when discharging. Generally, there are lead-acid batteries, Ni-Cd batteries, Ni-H batteries, and lithium batteries. The choice of battery capacity generally follows these principles: First, the energy from the daytime solar cell should be stored in the battery as much as possible while meeting the nighttime illumination, and at the same time, it is also necessary to store the electrical energy required for the consecutive rainy days. Battery capacity which is too small in capacity can not meet the needs of lighting at night, while large capacity of battery may result in waste. The battery should match the solar panel and the electrical load of street light. Here is a simple way to determine the relationship between them. The battery capacity is required to meet the sum of the energy consumed in the rainy day, and the power of the solar panel can be filled with the battery under the effective light conditions of one day.
Road Smart-Solar Street Lighting System-solar Street Light Components And Features-2
Photovoltaic controller

Photovoltaic controller is an automatic control device that controls solar panel and battery to charge the battery and supply the load. Regardless of the size of solar street light, a good performance controller is indispensable. In order to extend the service life of the battery, the controller should have the function which prevents overcharge or overdischarge of the battery. In places with large temperature differences, qualified controllers should also have temperature compensation function. Here are some features of photovoltaic controller which are used in Road Smart solar street lights and solar garden lights:

1. perfect protection function: over temperature, reverse connection, short circuit, over current, over charge / overdischarge, etc 

2. power adjustment: according to the daily charge, automatically adjust the discharge power 

3. historical data: can read the historical working data of 7 days   

4. status indication: indicate the current working status 

5. solar panel maximum efficiency tracking

Road Smart-Solar Street Lighting System-solar Street Light Components And Features-3
LED light source

LED (Light Emitting Diode) is a solid-state semiconductor device in which carriers recombine to cause photon reflection to generate light. It has many advantages, such as high brightness, energy consumption, long life, fast start-up, low power, no stroboscopic. Here are some LED lamp beads features:

1. small in size, the LED is basically a small chip packaged in epoxy resin, so it is very small and light. 

2. long service life, theoretical service life of 100,000 hours, the actual service life of more than 50,000 hours. 

3. environmental protection, LED materials are made of environmentally friendly materials, no pollution or toxic substances. 

4. energy saving, the power consumed is only 1 / 6 of incandescent lamps, 1/2 of fluorescent lamps 

Road Smart-Solar Street Lighting System-solar Street Light Components And Features-4
Light pole
The height of the pole should be determined according to the width of the road, the spacing of the luminaires, and the illuminance standard of the road. It should be mentioned that Road Smart has super talented industrial and structural design team who provide professional and free pole design service for customers who purchased Road Smart solar lights. They not only design excellent street lights and garden lights, but also can make innovative light poles which are both practical and beautiful with the characteristics of local place.
Road Smart-Solar Street Lighting System-solar Street Light Components And Features-5